ProAsianGold | Mining Glossary

Mining Glossary




Acid Rock Drainage (ARD)

When certain types of rocks are exposed to air, they oxidize and become acidic. Water passing over acid-generating rocks can leach potential contaminants that could adversely affect surface water, affect plant growth, corrode pipes and equipment, and harm the surrounding ecosystem.

Activated Carbon

Chemically treated and heated carbon, which has the ability to absorb gold and other metals.


A process of adding heat and pressure to extract gold from ore.



The material used to fill the space in a mine after ore has been extracted.

Barren Solution

The solution from which the gold has been extracted.


The richness and variety of living things – animals, plants and the ecosystems that support them.


The product of smelting or refining precious metals, usually in the form of bars or ingots.


A metal or mineral product recovered in the milling process in addition to the target product (gold).


Community Development

Health, infrastructure, education and business development programs that enhance and sustain host communities.

Community Engagement

Interactions among our company, local community members and other local stakeholders affected by our mines.

Concurrent Reclamation

Disturbed land that is reclaimed progressively during the mine life.

Crushing and Grinding

The process by which ore is broken into small pieces to prepare it for further processing.


A chemical used to dissolve gold and silver from ore.


Decant Water

Water recovered from the tailing’s storage facilities.


An area where gold or other metal has been found.


Removing groundwater that saturates the ore body to safely excavate the ore.


Unrefined gold and silver bullion bars usually consisting of approximately 90 percent precious metals that will be further refined to almost pure metal.


Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA)

An analysis of all the environmental impacts associated with a plan of development including beneficial and detrimental impacts.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

A description of the potential impacts associated with a development plan, mitigation measures to address impacts and a selected preferred alternative.

Environmental Incidents

Events or releases that have occurred where there has been a loss of control. Categorized on five levels, based on their potential environmental impact (from Level 1 with no or very low potential impact, through Level 5 with potentially severe impact).

Environmental Management Systems

Processes and procedures that guide Newmont in managing impacts to air, water and ecosystems, and the efforts we take to ensure our mines are successfully reclaimed and land is restored for beneficial reuse.


The breaking down and subsequent removal of either rock or surface material by wind, rain, wave action, freezing and thawing, and other processes.


Prospecting, sampling, mapping, diamond drilling and other work involved in searching for ore.


Feasibility Study

A comprehensive study undertaken to determine the economic feasibility of a project; the conclusion will determine if a production decision can be made and is used for financing arrangements


The land area that is disturbed through the construction and operation of a mine.


Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG)

Provides accounting and reporting standards and guidance for companies and other types of organizations preparing a greenhouse gas inventory.


Heap Leaching

A process whereby gold is extracted by “heaping” crushed ore on sloping impermeable pads and continually applying a weak cyanide solution that dissolves the gold. The gold-laden solution is then collected for gold recovery.

High Grade

Rich ore - the best ore in a deposit.


International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC)

A voluntary certification program that focuses on the responsible management of cyanide in the gold mining sector through its lifecycle, from manufacturing to transport to use and disposal.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

A global network that identifies what international standards are required by the business, government and society; develops them in partnership with the sectors that will put them to use; adopts them by transparent procedures based on national input; and delivers them to be implemented worldwide.

ISO 14001

An internationally accepted specification for the ProAsianGold environmental management system. It specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy; determining environmental aspects and impacts of products/activities/services; planning environmental objectives and measurable targets; implementing and operating programs to meet objectives and targets; checking and corrective action; and management review.



A chemical process used to extract gold.



A naturally occurring element that can be present in ore bodies, often in the mineral form of mercury sulfide (HgS), called cinnabar.


A processing facility where ore is finely ground and thereafter undergoes physical or chemical treatment to extract valuable metals.


Sorts the ore by size, crushes the rock and extracts the gold.


Open Pit

A mine where the minerals are mined entirely from the surface.

Ore Body

A sufficiently large amount of minerals and rock that can be mined economically.


A chemical reaction caused by exposure to oxygen that results in a change in the chemical composition of a mineral.


Pregnant Carbon

Carbon that has fully adsorbed all the gold it can hold.



The process by which lands disturbed as a result of mining activity are restored to support beneficial land use.


The final stage of metal production in which impurities are removed from the molten metal.


Planting new trees to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, provide habitats for animals and protect against soil erosion.

Risk Assessments

The overall process of risk analysis and risk evaluation using a systematic process to determine how often a specific event occurs or has the potential to occur, the magnitude of the event’s consequence, as well as prioritizing those events.


Heats ore to extract gold-bearing sulfide concentrate.

Rock Armor

Large rocks and vegetation that prevent erosion.


Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

A study undertaken to understand the potential or actual social and economic impacts and opportunities (of exploration, mining, closure and rehabilitation) on communities.

Sodium Cyanide

A chemical used in the processing of ore to dissolve gold and silver.

Sustainable Development

The industrial development that does not detract from the potential of the natural environment and provides benefits to future generations.



Residual sand/rock that remains after ore is crushed and gold has been extracted.

Tailings Storage Facility

An engineered, constructed facility for the long-term storage of tailings.


Waste Rock

Rock within, around or above the ore body with insufficient concentrations of metal for economic recovery.